In the classic Israeli pop tune from 1974, Natati La Hayyai, the first Israeli supergroup, Kavveret, opined about giving one’s life to one’s country, only to be insulted in return.
נתתי לה חיי, ירדתי על ברכי
יאמינו לי כולם, למדתי מה זה סתם ונעלבתי
Natati la hayyai, yaradti al birkai
Ya’aminu li kulam, lamadti mah zeh stam vene’elavti
I gave her my life, I got down on my knees
Believe me, everybody, I learned what’s meaningless, and I was insulted
It was Israel’s entry into the Eurovision Song Contest of 1974, their second year of participation in the annual competition. They didn’t win; it was not until 1978 and 1979 that they had two monumental hits that won Eurovision two years in a row (Abanibi and Halleluyah).
But the song was also a critique of Israel’s government, a plea for a two-state solution long before that idea was taken seriously by anybody in the mainstream:
אחד אומר שנגמרים לו השמיים
כשיש מספיק אוויר למדינה או שתיים
Ehad omer shenigmarim lo hashamayim,
ksheyesh maspik avir lemedinah o shtayim.
One says that the sky is ending for him,
When there is enough air for one or two countries.
It’s a statement of disaffection — the feeling that after what the song’s composer, Danny Sanderson, had given to Israel – his army service, his taxes, his ideological commitment to building the State of Israel, which was only about a quarter-century old when he wrote the song – that the State had left him behind, had smacked him down.
It’s been floating around in my head for a couple days, not for Zionist reasons, but for patriotic American reasons. Because I have been thinking, as many of us have, about the range of challenges facing Black Americans.
Yes, the police brutality, the chokeholds, the default suspicion, the profiling. Yes, the unequal distribution of resources. The ineffective schools. The double standards of justice. The higher rates of infant mortality. Yes, the redlining. The income statistics: As NY Times columnist David Brooks (no liberal snowflake, that one) points out, Black families earn 57 cents for every dollar white families earn. Black college graduates earn only about 80 cents for every dollar earned by white college graduates. “Between 1992 and 2013,” Brooks writes, “college-educated whites saw the value of their assets soar by 86 percent, while their black counterparts saw theirs fall by 55 percent.”
That is truly staggering. The feeling that I have been left with after surveying the depths of these challenges, is that Black Americans were not only mistreated from the moment that they arrived in chains on this continent, but that the very foundations of the American economy depended on the free or very cheap labor that Black Americans provided. And it seems that even after Emancipation, every attempt was made, whether deliberate or through the invisible hand that moves markets, to keep them from moving beyond the lowest rung on the economic ladder. Perhaps you heard last week about the destruction of “Black Wall Street” in Tulsa in 1921?
It is easy to understand why many Black Americans feel that they have given their lives to America, for the building of this nation. And yet many also feel that not only have they NOT received credit, but feel as if this country continues to try to smack them down. And when a police officer kneels on a Black man’s neck patiently until he dies, we do not have to wonder why people are angry and disaffected. Natati lah hayyai. I gave her my life.
I have been trying to find the right way into this issue for a while. Three weeks ago, I quoted an assortment of texts from the Jewish bookshelf on the various ways of respecting one’s neighbor. Two weeks ago I suggested that the way that we can help is by being engaged with society, with all the people around us. But there is something else that we need to acknowledge, hevreh, and that is this:
Black lives matter.
Yes, yes, I know. Jewish lives matter too. And some of you are surely thinking, “Rabbi, shouldn’t you be talking about the Jews?”
Well, I am talking about the Jews. I’m talking about the Jews of Boston – my great-grandparents, who owned a house in Dorchester, which at some point in the early 1960s they sold because they were scared – the neighborhood was changing. I’m talking about the Jews of the Hill District here in Pittsburgh, and of cities all over America, who were busy fleeing to the suburbs, and who did not look back over their shoulders, like Lot and his daughters, to see the faces of those who moved into their old neighborhoods.
And I am also talking about the Jews who signed up for the civil rights movement; who stood with Dr. Martin Luther King, who worked alongside Black activists in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer of 1964, who died along with them.
And I am also talking about Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, who wrote in his essay, “Religion and Race” in 1963:
There are people in our country whose moral sensitivity suffers a blackout when confronted with the black man’s predicament. How many disasters do we have to go through in order to realize that all of humanity has a stake in the liberty of one person?… What begins as inequality of some inevitably ends as inequality of all.
Bias and fear of the other are, of course, a part of being human, and these things are very hard to overcome. And while I am certain that the vast majority of us do not sympathize with white supremacy, which would of course be ludicrous for Jews, there is no person without biases.
But we are all part of this system, whether we like it or not. And that is why it is essential right now to affirm something that we might all have missed as we were busy becoming fully accepted in American society: that black lives matter too.
Now, I know that some of you have heard that that slogan is anti-Semitic and/or anti-Israel. It is true that the Movement for Black Lives, which is one group within the sphere of those who have participated in the wider Black Lives Matter movement, has featured language on their website since 2016 that is anti-Israel, using odious terms like “apartheid” and “genocide” in ways that are completely inappropriate. The attempt to link the Palestinian cause to the struggles of Black Americans indicates a woeful misunderstanding of the history of the Middle East and muddles the message of the latter.
However, the Movement for Black Lives does not speak for all who carry the banner of Black Lives Matter. This is not the message that most people hear when they repeat that slogan. What they hear is, We care about our neighbors; we care about equity in our society; we care about the disenfranchised, and we want to make sure that all are given a fair opportunity to make it in this world.
And those are clearly things which are drawn from Jewish tradition, some of which I have previously identified.
So yes, we must be wary of those who seek to delegitimize Israel, but we can also work for the benefit of our African-American neighbors at the same time. Those things are not in conflict. (And many have written about this already, including my rabbinical school classmate Rabbi Avi Olitzky: Why I, A Minneapolis Rabbi, Changed My Mind About Black Lives Matter, and Amanda Berman, the founder of Zioness, a progressive, Zionist group: We Can – We Must Show Up As Zionists For Black Lives Matter).
Turning back to the Torah for a moment, the first two words of Parashat Qorah, which we read this morning, are, “Vayiqqah Qorah.” Literally, Qorah took. But there is a problem with this verse, in that the verb “laqahat” (to take) is transitive – in Hebrew as in English, it requires a direct object. You cannot merely take; you must take something. Rashi tells us something useful: that
לקח את עצמו לצד אחר להיות נחלק מתוך העדה
He took himself to one side, splitting off from the community.
That is, Qorah’s attempt to effect change was to selfishly and violently lead others astray, to divide the Israelites so as to upset the balance of power. Moshe, by the way, does not fare much better; he is angered by Qorah’s accusations, by dividing people and leading malcontents astray, and fires back with similarly accusatory language at Qorah and his posse.
And folks, this is not leadership. True leadership requires working together for the common good. It does not encourage division, or accusation, or aggressive, one-sided actions.
Good leadership requires talking to everybody, listening to all the voices around you and forging a path forward together. It does not mean that everybody agrees on everything, but that disagreement is respectful and does not impact the common welfare.
How can we in the Jewish community show true leadership at this time? By being part of the discourse, by listening to our Black friends and neighbors, by understanding that the message of “Black lives matter” is one that we can and should sign onto. We need to be at that table. We need to make sure that Jewish voices are heard in that context. We need to give of our lives as well, to make sure that, as Rabbi Heschel put it, the inequality of some does not inevitably become the inequality of all.
Rabbi Seth Adelson
(Originally delivered at Congregation Beth Shalom, Pittsburgh, PA, Shabbat morning, 6/27/2020.)
6 replies on “Black Lives Matter – Qorah 5780”
Excellent and timely essay, Rabbi. Inequality has always tragically characterized the dualities of the human condition, from our attitudes towards wealth vs poverty, male vs female, rulers and their subjects, education and the lack of it. That said, I think that inequality has been exacerbated by humanity becoming obsessed with ‘self’; with the supremacy of the individual entity. Yet, at its root, inequality in all of its manifestations is really nothing more than lack of empathy. When we objectify others is when they truly become the ‘other’ on their way to becoming victims of this terrible distortion.
Another good sermon. You overlooked potential sources of anti-Semitism. The Jewish slumlords in most metro areas. The shopkeepers who gouge customers and exploit them by charging exorbitant interest. The origins of institutions like Salomon Brothers and Goldman Sachs in the south, helping the planters finance their trade in humans and commodities. The Jewish role is tainted and needs to be better known.
Thank you, David.
I don’t think it’s warranted to impugn only the Jews in this regard – there are plenty of slumlords of various backgrounds. And your hints regarding the Jewish role in slavery sounds nearly Farrakhan-esque. I do not know this history, and perhaps if you point me to a reference I can learn. But there is plenty of blame to go around for the institution of slavery, and calling out the Jews in particular seems dangerous and irresponsible in our current climate.
I normally go to Beth Hamederash Hagadol and South Hills Chabad.
In any event I listen to you on Zoom and I really enjoy your services. However your sermon supporting Black Lives Matter is way out in deep space. If it quacks like an duck looks like an duck and walks like an duck. It is an duck. That is the bottom line. Fighting anti semitism and supporting Israel should be our highest priority. Please come back to earth.
Thank you for tuning in, and for your feedback, Perry. I’m not sure what the “duck” is that you are speaking of, and I certainly agree with you that fighting anti-Semitism and supporting Israel are essential priorities for the American Jewish community.
However, we do not live alone in America. Although libi bamizrah (my heart is in the East), I am proud to be 100% American and committed to this nation. This is the country that gave my persecuted ancestors shelter when they fled the shtetl, and I am grateful.
As one who cares deeply about America and the fabric of American society, I think it is essential to ensure that our institutions and our system is a just one. Maimonides teaches us that if you live in an unjust society, you should leave. Well, some day when I retire in Israel I might do just that. But meanwhile, my life is here and my flock is here, and I am going to do the best I can to make sure that I live in a just society.
Again, thanks, and perhaps I’ll see you via Zoom!
[…] how Black people have been treated by white America, something which I have spoken about repeatedly over the last several weeks, we cannot lose sight of the fact that anti-Semitism has a much longer history than European […]